Wednesday, October 23, 2019

USB Type-A Connector Pinout, Features, Connections & Datasheet

USB Type-A Connector Pinout, Features, Connections & Datasheet

USB Type-A (Female) Connector

Pin Configuration

Pin No:

Pin Name:




This pin should be provided with +5V, through which the device is powered



Differential pair D-, must be connected to D- of the host for data transfer



Differential pair D+, must be connected to D+ of the host fo data transfer



Connected to the ground pin of the host.


  • Type-A USB 2.0 Plug (Female)
  • Universal and secure USB protocol
  • Its plug and play (Hot pluggable)
  • Can be used to interface mouse and keyboards to uP/uC
  • USB power supply: 100 to 500 mA
  • Protocol supports robust error detection

Alternative USB plugs

micro-USB, USB Type-B, USB Type-C

Where to Use USB-A Jack

The term USB stands for Universal Serial Bus, as the name implies it is universal form of communication which is even now supported by all hardware and software that has USB host. This works through Asynchronous Serial Protocol, meaning there is no clock shared between the sender and receiver. Every device that we connect to USB port works though this protocol. If a Microcontroller or Microprocessor supports USB host then we can connect any USB device like Keyboard, mouse, camera, printer, MP3 player etc to exchange information between this device and the host (uP or uC). It can also be used to transfer data between two Microcontrollers and Microprocessor, if you project requires you to do so. Few popular microcontrollers that support USB host are Arduino USB host, UMFT120DC, Arm Cortex M4 etc..

So if your project requires you to establish an USB connection, then this jack can be connected to the device and wired to your uP or uC.

How to use USB-A Jack

The USB Jack has only three pins and hence is relatively simple to use. Out of the four pin two pins (pin 1 and Pin 4) are used to provide the Vcc and Ground. The supply voltage of Vcc is +5V and is usually provided from the Microcontroller itself. The ground pin is connected to the ground of microcontroller.

The remaining two pins are the D+ and the D-. These pins should be connected to the D+ and D- pins of the host respectively. They also require a pull-down resistor of value 15K each for the data to transfer. A sample connection set-up is shown below.

USB-A Jack Circuit Connections

Based on the microcontroller you are using there are a tons of library that are available to work with USB protocol, use one of them and you should be all set to use USB peripherals with your project.


  • Interface Keyboard or mouse with MCU
  • Serial Bus connections
  • Portable and pluggable devices
  • Small distance, high speed communication

2D Model of USB-A Jack

USB-A Jack Dimensions

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Difference Between USB 1.0 and USB 2.0 Difference Between | Difference Between

Difference Between USB 1.0 and USB 2.0 Difference Between | Difference Between

Difference Between USB 1.0 And USB 2.0

usbUSB 1.0 vs 2.0

The Universal Serial Bus or USB has become the most used port in computers today. It currently exists in two versions. 1.0 which was the original standard of USB, and 2.0 which is the improved version for newer devices. To the end user, the difference between these two devices is purely in its speed. USB 1.0 devices can only achieve a maximum speed of 12Mbps while 2.0 devices can theoretically achieve up to 40 times that at 480Mbps. The real world speeds are lower for both standards since there are other factors that can affect its total throughput.

Originally intended for much slower devices, the initial USB implementation did not provide any option for high speed data transmission. Devices like mice, keyboards, game controllers, and a few others, which were the devices that USB was for, usually transmitted only a very small amount of data to function properly. But as USB became more popular, more devices also began to switch to USB because of the growing popularity of the USB port and the relative ease of plugging in devices. High speed devices like thumb drives proliferated quickly, and digital cameras and camcorders began to sport a USB cable for connecting to computers, but the hindrance of very slow connection speeds became quite apparent rather quickly.

The 12Mbps speed of 1.0 devices is already an upgrade to the very first standard which only allowed 1.5Mbps connections. USB 1.0 devices can either be a low speed device which runs at 1.5mbps or a full speed device at 12Mbps. A connecting device must identify whether it's a low or full speed device at its initialization. USB 2.0 adds the high speed connection to the previous two, and it is in high speed that you can get the 480Mbps theoretical throughput.

Because USB 1.0 can only recognize low speed and full speed devices, USB 2.0 must create a workaround in order to retain backwards compatibility with the older standard. A 2.0 device identifies itself as a full speed device at first then negotiates with the controller via a series of chirps. Once the controller identifies the device as a high speed device, the connection is then reset to and high speed signalling is used.

1.USB 2.0 is the upgrade of 1.0
2.USB 2.0 is much faster compared to 1.0
3.USB 1.0 has two modes of operation while 2.0 adds another one
4.USB 2.0 devices needs to connect as a 1.0 device and negotiate for a 2.0 connection

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Difference Between USB 1.0 and USB 2.0 Difference Between | Difference Between

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Saturday, June 8, 2019

From hobby to analytics: Malaysia’s dronetech companies scale up for the future - CNA

From hobby to analytics: Malaysia's dronetech companies scale up for the future - CNA

From hobby to analytics: Malaysia's dronetech companies scale up for the future

DJI Phantom 4 drone
A DJI Phantom 4 drone. (File photo: Ethan Miller/Getty Images/AFP)
(Updated: )


KUALA LUMPUR: In the office of Aerodyne Group in Petaling Jaya, Selangor, a drone designer was giving his full attention to fine-tuning a set of propeller guards on his computer.

He studied the blades' dimensions carefully before 3D printing the product, which would then be installed on a custom drone to protect its propellers.

On another floor, a group of data analysts were hunched over the computers and going through photos and footage captured by drones for clients.

A row of TV screens on the wall charted ongoing mapping and geo-survey projects.

dronetech company
Aerodyne Group's co-founder and Chief Executive Officer Kamarul Mohamed. (Photo: Vincent Tan)

"They are not just simply sorting and processing data using human labour," Aerodyne Group's co-founder and Chief Executive Officer Kamarul Mohamed explained to CNA.

"They are examining data already cleaned up by our internal artificial intelligence (AI), performing quality assurance at the same time helping to refine the AI's machine learning process."

The scene at Aerodyne showed there is much more to flying drones than just a cool hobby.

Having evolved beyond a gadget fad, the drones are here to stay. At the same time, there is serious money in the industry.

A study released by PricewaterhouseCoopers Poland estimated the 2015 global commercial drone market at US$127 billion, with applications in sectors such as infrastructure, agriculture, media and security.

READ: UPS launches package delivery by drone

However, as with most disruptive technologies, the dominant mindset in Malaysia towards drones has been a "wait-and-see" approach.

Some industries, such as the media and entertainment industry, have embraced drones quickly for their obvious utility and lower costs in obtaining aerial videos and photo stills, whereas previously one would have to charter a helicopter for aerial footage.

But over time, more and more "prosumer" (the bridge between professional and consumer) drone models have entered the market, lowering the barriers to entry for commercial aerial photography and videography.

While this has resulted in many new amateurs joining the commercial ranks, serious players are moving well beyond footage and stills to combining drone technology with analytics, spawning a whole industry in capturing, processing and presenting drone data for businesses and clients with large physical assets.


The mainstream acceptance of dronetech began to really take off around end of 2016, noted OFO Tech (Ohsem Flying Object) co-founder and Chief Executive Officer Armi Majid.

Prior to that, clients had to be "brave enough" to adopt what they assumed to be a disruptive technology.

OFO Tech co-founder and Chief Executive Officer Armi Majid. (Photo: Vincent Tan) 

OFO Tech started out as a hardware solutions provider. The founders were engineers by training, and relished building their own drones or customising off-the-shelf ones for clients.

Now, while OFO still builds and tailors its own machines for jobs, the focus has pivoted to data, from acquisition to presentation. It brands itself as an unmanned aerial system solution provider, with its biggest clients coming from the construction, agriculture and land surveying sectors.

"People are more open now, especially those who are more exposed to technology and younger clients," said Mr Armi.

From its four founders back in 2016 to 27 people now in Malaysia and Indonesia, the company is preparing to enter Europe.

Likewise, Klang Valley-based Aerodyne Group Sdn Bhd is also scaling up. It expanded from three founders in 2015 to 270 people in 25 countries currently, including Japan, China, India and Russia.

Aerodyne began generating a positive cashflow by its second year of business. The group carried out its Series A round of venture funding last year and a pre-Series B funding round earlier this year from Japan's Drone Fund, a venture capital firm, to begin serious expansion as an international player.

Starting from just drone-captured visuals, Aerodyne quickly pivoted and went into providing "actionable data". It means processing the raw data captured by the drones, and giving their clients information that the latter need to act upon immediately.

"It depends on the industry, like where your equipment is failing, or if you are a plantation, which areas need better attention, do they need more fertiliser, or are the trees in this section dying," said Mr Kamarul.

These days, clients want more than just "actionable data", he added.

"They want real business insights and a real understanding of the data to allow them to run their operations better."

drone technology
Mr Armi Majid of OFO Tech demonstrates how they combine drone-captured images and ground-based cameras to present 3D images of buildings for clients. (Photo: Vincent Tan)

Mr Armi of OFO Tech added: "In truth, we're becoming more like drone data companies, rather than drone companies".

In terms of the economies of scale in drone manufacturing, Malaysian businesses are far behind global players such as the Shenzhen-based DJI.

Instead, many companies have taken on custom building projects for specific jobs and data analytics. A local company, Fourfang, has developed a fully autonomous drone with its own docking station to recharge flight battery. 


Is it a cowboy town out there, where drone operators hunt for visuals without supervision? Industry players say no, but vigorous enforcement is nonetheless needed.

At least four different authorities are regulating drone usage and development in Malaysia.

SIRIM (formerly the Standard and Industrial Research Institute of Malaysia) ensures each machine is airworthy, while the Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission manages the frequencies allotted to drones to receive their control signals.

The Department of Survey and Mapping Malaysia (JUPEM) issues permits for drone flights on the basis that all mapping activities, including drone mapping and surveying, falls under its jurisdiction due to national security.

As for Civil Aviation Authority of Malaysia (CAAM), drones come under the Civil Aviation Regulations 2016, which state that all drone activities, regardless of size or purpose, require a flying permit. Flight ceiling is capped at 120m above ground level.

In addition, drone flying is barred from certain airspaces, including airports, Malaysia's administrative capital Putrajaya, Istana Negara, military bases, telco base towers and residential areas, unless permitted.

However, Mr William Alvisse, a former aerial photographer and now the executive secretary for the Malaysia Unmanned Drone Activist Society (MUDAS) noted: "So far, the authorities have been very lenient".

MUDAS is a non-governmental organisation involved in research, academia and the aerospace industry. It also promotes dronetech and STEM (science, technology, engineering and mathematics) education among schoolchildren via drone construction workshops.

MUDAS Executive Secretary William Alvisse (in red cap) demonstrating a drone flight for Communications and Multimedia Minister Gobind Singh Deo during an event. (Photo: Malaysia Unmanned Drone Activist Society) 

Besides, it educates amateurs and professionals on the legal usage of drones, while talking to the authorities on how to best regulate the industry without stifling its growth.

One impetus for MUDAS' efforts to engage both sides is to avoid any injury or damage arising from irresponsibly piloted drones.

Back in 2017, a remote-controlled plane hit a boy riding pillion on a motorcycle, resulting in severe injuries, while earlier in 2015, amateurs posted stills they had taken flying over Kuala Lumpur International Airport, resulting in public outrage.

"Although the 2017 incident was an RC (radio-controlled) plane, it still leaves a bad image for the drone community. We can't wait for the first tragedy to happen," Mr Alvisse said.


Despite the regulations, there have been instances of rules being flouted.

Adam Lokman's Adam Lokman. (Photo: Vincent Tan) 

On social media, amateurs have continued to post drone shots over the Kuala Lumpur Tower or Petronas Twin Towers. Such activities violate CAAM guidelines, which prohibit flying over residential or crowded areas, said's Adam Lokman.

In addition, the location fees charged by CAAM (RM250 per drone per location) and JUPEM's RM50 permit fee a day also mean that often, amateurs and even commercial operators tend to disregard the rules, as long as there are no visible consequences, Mr Alvisse said.

Those flying a drone without CAAM's permit could face three years' jail, a RM50,000 fine, or both. 

Some players feel that rigid regulation may stifle Malaysia's chances in keeping up with drone technology developments elsewhere.

Regulators in other countries are already putting frameworks in place to promote future technologies, Mr Kamarul of Aerodyne said.

"The usage of drones with smart sensors and autonomous capabilities are going to change the world. We need to see the value of these solutions and introduce necessary framework to run these operations in a safe manner," he said.

Rather than being a big fish in a small pond, Mr Kamarul said promoting a nurturing ecosystem for new technologies would be better for Malaysia.

"We want to see other Malaysian companies rise, and be global players as well, the market size in Malaysia itself is already quite sizeable," Mr Kamarul noted, adding that his own conservative estimate of the drone industry market in Malaysia ran from RM500 million (US$ 120 million), for just drone services, and is still growing.

READ: First air taxi trials to take place over the southern part of Singapore in 2019


The relevant government agencies have been engaging the dronetech companies to develop the industry.

One major driver on this front is the Malaysian Digital Economy Corporation (MDEC), which kicked off an initiative to develop the drone scene in 2017.

According to Mr Mohd Safuan Mohd Zairi, who works in MDEC's Enterprise Growth Accelerator and a "dronetech evangelist", the agency under the Communications and Multimedia Ministry has organised two industry roundtable sessions to share both the regulators' and the private sector's concerns, as well as issues in developing and managing the growing drone scene.

Players in the private sector, entrepreneurship enablers such as Malaysian Global Innovation & Creativity Centre and Futurise, as well as the regulators attended the roundtable.

"Futurise has established a drone testing zone in Cyberjaya, and we are also collaborating with the Entrepreneur Development Ministry to boost the creation of more 'dronepreneurs' in the dronetech and air mobility industry," Mr Mohd Safuan highlighted.

Other industry efforts include partnerships with local higher education institutes, while engaging international bodies such as the World Economic Forum's Drone Innovator Network, the Fédération Aéronautique Internationale and global drone technology companies to enhance Malaysia's own capabilities.

Although the local scene is still at a nascent stage, Mr Mohd Safuan said there have been several encouraging indicators.

"We do have local dronetech players such as Aerodyne that have received global recognition, and others are scaling up globally," he said, pointing to OFO Tech as well as another player, Poladrone.

Mr Mohd Safuan is cognisant about the challenges involved.

"We need to tackle four key areas - putting in place adaptive dronetech regulation and policies, certifying talents and developing future skills," he said.

"However, these challenges are not entirely unique to Malaysia, and we can overcome them sooner by putting in place the necessary intervention measures."

Meanwhile, at the grassroots level, enthusiasts are trying their best to cultivate a pool of young talents for the industry.

drone pilot Liyana Sobhi
Liyana Sobhi is one of the few females interested in drone technology. (Photo: Vincent Tan) 

Among those is Liyana Sobhi, one of the few females active in the drone scene.

Besides being's point person for the reseller's social media and marketing and handling walk-in customers, she also works on outreach programmes for kids.

The 25-year-old believes that drones serve as a way to broaden children's minds.

"In schools there'll be robotics and coding, so why not put drones together with those activities?  Eventually it'll open up their perspectives on STEM," she said.

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Monday, March 4, 2019

HCIC 2019

HCIC 2019

Hwa Chong Infocomm Challenge 华侨中学信息技术竞赛

The Challenge is open to a total of 60 Primary 6 participants. Registration must be made through the school by a teacher-in-charge via the online registration form below. Each school is allowed to submit ONE group of participants only, comprising a maximum of three students. Application is on a first-come-first-served basis. Schools of successful applicants will receive notification after 22 April 2019.


All participants must be born between 2nd Jan 2007 and 1st Jan 2008, both dates inclusive, or Primary 6 students born after 1st Jan 2008.

Structure of Competition

The competition comprises a written component and a practical hands-on session. Each participant will work individually.

The written component comprises:
1) multiple-choice questions where marks will be deducted for wrong answers, and
2) structured questions.

Certificates and Prizes

Top participants will receive Gold (top 5%), Silver (next 5%), and Bronze (subsequent 5%) Award certificates. Other participants will receive certificates of participation. Names printed on the certificates will be in accordance to name submitted in the registration form. An adminstrative charge of $10 will be levied on re-print requests.

Ten individual prizes will also be awarded to the top 10 participants.

  • 1st - 3rd prize : MacBook
  • 4th - 10th : iPads


  • Opening date: 25 March 2019 1200h
  • Closing date: 12 April 2019 2359h

Instructions for Participants

All participants must report in full school uniform and bring their own stationery. Participants arriving afer registration time will be disallowed from competition.

Reporting Venue Tech Centre at Hwa Chong Institution (Computer lab)
Reporting time 8am at the HCI Clock Tower [Map & travelling directions to HCI]
Focus topics Programming logic, Python programming language, robotics knowledge
Format Competition comprises a written and a hands-on session.

Programme Schedule

0730 h - 0815 h Registration (Kah Kee Hall, High School Section)
0830 h - 1030 h Competition in progress.
1030 h - 1040 h Collection of scripts, dismissal
1100 h Prize presentation and lunch

For more queries, please email


Registration is open between 25 March 2019 1200h to 12 April 2019 on a first-come-first-served basis.
Successful applicants will receive notification after 22 April 2019.

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Sunday, February 24, 2019

Fwd: 2019 MakeX Robotics Competition (Starter - City Guardian)

Dear Customer,

Following a successful MakeX Starter Competition in 2018 in Singapore and globally.

Once again, Dream Catcher / Sparklife is planning the 2019 MakeX Robotics Competition with our partners in October'19.
For Primary and Secondary levels, below video link is the competition challenges for "2019 MakeX Robotics Competition Starter - City Guardian".

More information will be released soon. Please stay tuned.

We will like to also take this opportunity to inform you that effectively 2019, STEM Education & STEM Products will come under our new company:Sparklife Pte Ltd. A branch-out from Dream Catcher Technologies Pte Ltd.  

Best Regards,
TAN Cheng Yian (Mr.)
Principal Consultant
Dream Catcher Technologies Pte Ltd - Educational kits for kids, Singapore reseller for MakeBlock Robot Kits - Educational kits for kids      


Mr Chang CL

Poi Ching School

21 Tampines St. 71 Singapore 529067

Tel: 6785 6420 Fax: 6785 7198


Monday, February 18, 2019

Fwd: Discontinuation of National Coding Competition (Primary)

---------- Forwarded message ---------
From: Caleb YEE (MOE) <>
Date: Mon, Feb 18, 2019 at 8:17 AM
Subject: Discontinuation of National Coding Competition (Primary)
Cc: <>, <>, <>, Meng Teck CHEE (MOE) <>

[This email is bcc-ed to teachers-in-charge of National Coding Competition (Primary)]

Dear colleagues,


Greetings from the Computer Education Unit, CPDD.


The National Coding Competition (Primary) was started in 2014 to enthuse primary school students in coding and to provide opportunities for them to apply their coding skills. We would like to thank you for your support for the competition.


The competition is organized based on a model with two secondary schools as the main organizers and CPDD as the supporting division. We are very grateful to the following schools for organising the competition and would like to thank them for their contributions:


·       Springfield Secondary School (2014-2018)

·       Regent Secondary School (2015-2017)

·       Montfort Secondary School (2018)


Recently, we reviewed the competition and scanned the broader environment. We are heartened to note that there is a range of coding competitions organised by various organizations for primary school students. In view that there are ample opportunities for students to participate in coding competitions, we will be discontinuing the National Coding Competition (Primary) with effect from 2019.


We hope your school will continue to expose your students in programming by taking part in these competitions. We have listed a few of them below for your consideration.


Name of coding competition (Primary)



IMDA Hackathon 


IMDA National Infocomm Competition




National Primary Games Creation Competition


Wellington Primary School


National Robotics Programming Competition


Admiralty Secondary School and Nanyang Polytechnic


National Robotics Competition

Science Centre


Thank you once again for your support and understanding.





Caleb Yee (Mr)

Senior Curriculum Planning Officer (Computer Education)

Curriculum Planning and Development Division 1 • Tel: +65 6879 6580 • Fax: +65 6776 2494

Ministry of Education • 1 North Buona Vista Drive, Singapore 138675 •

Integrity the Foundation • People our Focus • Learning our Passion • Excellence our Pursuit

CONFIDENTIALITY: If this email has been sent to you by mistake, please notify the sender and delete it immediately. As it may contain confidential information, the retention or dissemination of its contents may be an offence under the Official Secrets Act.



Mr Chang CL

Poi Ching School

21 Tampines St. 71 Singapore 529067

Tel: 6785 6420 Fax: 6785 7198